Phyllostachys edulis, moso bamboo, or mao zhu (Chinese name: 毛竹) is a temperate species of giant timber bamboo. This bamboo can reach heights of up to 28 m. This particular species of bamboo is the most common species used in the bamboo textile industry of China. Phyllostchys edulis spreads using both asexual and sexual reproduction. The most common and well known for this plant is asexual reproduction. This occurs when the plant sends up new culms from underground rhizomes. Lateral buds on rhizome form new shoots which grow rapidly after emerging from soil and complete average culm height of 13 meters within 38 days in moso bamboo (Li et al., 1998, Song et al., 2016). The fast growth of the new shoots is entirely dependent on the well-developed rhizome-root system, which can horizontally spread widely and connect the young culms with other mature bamboos (Li et al., 2000, Embaye et al., 2005, Zhou et al., 2005, Song et al., 2016). The rhizome system has important function on energy storage, transportation and vegetative reproduction (Li et al., 1998).
However, the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism has not been comprehensively studied for the development of rhizome system in bamboo. We therefore combined single-molecule long-read sequencing technology and SGS (RNA-seq and PAS-seq) to genome-wide identify and quantify alternative splicing (AS) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) in the rhizomes system. Taken together, our results suggest that posttranscriptional regulation may potentially play vital role in the underground rhizome-root system.